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Accelerated radial Fourier- velocity encoding using compressed sensing. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time.
For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding.
By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements.
Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Abdominal organ motion during inhalation and exhalation breath-holds : pancreatic motion at different lung volumes compared.
Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. During breath-holdingwe obtained dynamic single-slice magnetic-resonance images with a time-resolution of 0. We used 2-dimensional image correlation to obtain the diaphragmatic and pancreatic velocity and displacement during breath-holding.
Organ velocity was largest in the inferior-superior direction and was greatest during the first 10s of breath-holdingwith diaphragm velocities of 0.
Organ motion magnitudes were larger during inhalation breath-holds diaphragm moved 9. Using exhalation breath-holds rather than inhalation breath-holds and delaying irradiation until after the first 10s of breath-holding may be advantageous for irradiation of abdominal tumors.
All rights reserved. Comparison of 4D flow and 2D velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI sequences for the evaluation of aortic hemodynamics. PubMed Central. Additionally, the 2D-3dir velocity taking into account the through-plane component only windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal used to obtain results analogous to a free breathing 2D-1dir acquisition. The measurement of fluid velocity by encoding it in the phase of a magnetic resonance imaging MRI signal windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal allow the discrimination of the stationary spins signals from those of moving spins.
This results in a wide variety of applications i. The work presented in this paper is a theoretical analysis of some novel methods for multiple fluid velocity encoding in the phase of an MRI signal.
These methods are based on a tripolar gradient TPG and can be an alternative to the conventional methods based on a bipolar gradient BPG and could be more suitable for multiple velocity encoding in the phase of an MRI signal. Gender differences in response to cold pressor test assessed with velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the coronary sinus. Gender-specific differences in cardiovascular risk are well known, and current evidence supports an existing role of endothelium in these differences.
The purpose of this study windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal to assess non invasively coronary endothelial function in male and female young volunteers by myocardial blood flow MBF measurement using coronary sinus CS flow quantification by velocity encoded cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR at rest and during cold pressor test CPT.
Coronary sinus flow was measured at rest and during CPT using non breath-hold velocity encoded phase contrast cine-CMR. Myocardial function and morphology were acquired using a cine steady-state free precession sequence. At baseline, mean Посмотреть больше was 0. The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal and chronic смотрите подробнее such a sport could have on the health of participants.
Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function.
Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma.
Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.
Breath-Hold Diving. Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses.
This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the download windows 10 update 1909 – download 10 update 1909 and chest vasculature.
Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal oxygen.
Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse.
Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal pulmonary injury called “squeeze,” characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained.
Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holdsand has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts.
Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed.
Compr Physiol Quantification of left windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal right atrial shunts with velocity-encoded cine nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of velocity-encoded nuclear magnetic resonance NMR imaging to quantify left to right intracardiac shunts in patients with an atrial septal defect. Quantification of intracardiac shunts is clinically important in planning therapy.
Because it is completely noninvasive, it can be used to monitor windows 10 21h1 drive volume over time. Velocity navigator for motion compensated thermometry. Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry is sensitive to breathing motion that leads to incorrect phase differences. In this work, a novel velocity -sensitive navigator technique for triggering MR thermometry image acquisition is presented.
A segmented echo planar imaging pulse sequence was modified for velocity -triggered temperature mapping. Trigger events were generated when the estimated velocity value was less than 0. To remove remaining high-frequency spikes from pulsation in real time, a Kalman filter was applied to the velocity navigator data.
A phantom experiment with heating and an initial volunteer experiment without heating were performed to show the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a breath-hold windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal was conducted for comparison.
In the volunteer experiment, a RMSE of 2. A novel velocity navigator with Kalman filter postprocessing in real time significantly improves the temperature accuracy over non-triggered acquisitions and suggests being comparable to a breath-held acquisition.
The proposed technique might be clinically applied for monitoring of thermal ablations in abdominal organs. It is unknown whether a bio-behavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced increased or decreased by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress post-cannabis use.
This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly lower breath-holding durations relative to placebo.
There was a significant interaction of drug administration x frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may be exacerbating distress intolerance via breath-holding duration. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress.
Depth- encoded dual beam phase-resolved Doppler OCT for Doppler-angle-independent flow velocity measurement. Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography PR-D-OCT is a functional OCT imaging technique that can provide high-speed and high-resolution depth-resolved measurement on flow in biological materials. In this paper, we proposed a novel dual-beam PR-D-OCT method to measure absolute flow velocity without separate measurement on the projection angle.
Two parallel light beams are created in sample arm and focused into the sample at two different incident angles. The images produced by these two beams are encoded to different depths in single B-scan.
Then the Doppler signals picked up by the two beams together with the incident angle difference can be used to calculate the absolute velocity.
We validated our approach in vitro on an artificial flow phantom with our home-built nm swept source OCT. Experimental results demonstrated that our method can provide an accurate measurement of absolute flow velocity with independency on the projection angle. It has been widely believed that tissue nitrogen uptake from the lungs during breath-hold diving would be insufficient to cause decompression stress in humans. With competitive free diving, however, diving depths have been ever windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal over the past decades.
A case is presented of a competitive free-diving athlete who suffered stroke-like symptoms after surfacing from his last dive ссылка на продолжение a series of 3 deep breath-hold dives.
A literature and Web search was performed to screen for similar cases of subjects with serious neurological symptoms after deep breath-hold dives. A previously healthy y-old athlete experienced right-sided motor weakness and difficulty speaking immediately after surfacing from a breathhold dive to a depth of m.
He had performed 2 preceding breath-hold dives to that depth with surface intervals of only 15 min. The presentation of symptoms and neuroimaging findings supported windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal clinical diagnosis of stroke. Three more cases of neurological insults were retrieved by literature and Web search; in windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal cases the athletes presented with stroke-like symptoms after single breath-hold dives of depths exceeding m.
Two of these cases only had a short delay to windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal treatment and completely recovered from the insult. This report highlights the possibility of neurological insult, eg, stroke, due to cerebral arterial gas embolism as a consequence of decompression stress after deep breath-hold dives.
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Reflex anoxic seizures ‘white breath-holding ‘ : nonepileptic vagal attacks. We studied 36 healthy volunteers in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. Boitstrap present an improved algorithm for sampling the target velocity when simulating biotstrap scattering in a Monte Carlo neutron transport code that correctly accounts for the energy dependence of the scattering cross section. Prolonged dry apnoea: effects on brain activity and physiological functions in breath-hold divers and non-divers. Quantitative parameters SUV max and mean and Vic40 were assessed for both methods and evaluated by linear regression and Spearman’s correlation. The results suggest that differential encoding initially causes the reminiscence bump windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrap modal that re- sampling increases the bump further.
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This concern is further substantiated by the observed increase in serum myoglobin concentration after the event.