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E-tickets and day booking window introduced on certain trains by Russian Railways. Wikileaks founder Assange faces Espionage charges but nothing on his role in Trump-Russia conspiracy. Chinese and Russian forces concluded their joint counter-terror exercises Lavrov: missile strike in Syria has caused damage to relations between Russia and the United States.

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Sweden preparing nuclear fallout bunkers across the country amid fear of Russian war. Kellyanne reveals the truth about Mueller will end the Trump-Russia investigation. Buzzfeed pubblica testo di audio segreto di un incontro su presunti finanziamenti Russia-Lega. The history of Khichdi is traced since Vedic civilization to the Mahabharata times from the Mughal era till date From Chanakya to Chandragupta Maurya from Greek historian Megasthenes to Moroccan scholar Ibn Batuta from Russian adventurer Nikitin to French merchant Jean Tavernir all have described how Khichdi was a part of contemporary food in their writings Khichdi has assumed diverse delicious forms not only in Indian states but it is also believed to have inspired British dish Kedgeree as well.

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Furthermore, the financial reality of non-affordability of municipal services to meet basic needs – owing to weak local economic bases – emphasizes the need for Local Municipalities to actively pursue their LED mandates. This entails creating an enabling environment, stimulating economic growth, job creation, redistribution of economic opportunities, and also, black economic empowerment. The resource base of rural municipalities is mostly agriculture driven and in the long-term the capacity and affordability of these municipalities to improve service delivery is tied to the fortunes of the rural sector.

ACAT Tel: www. The plan includes selling produce to tourists and stores in the region, and so generate revenue and work opportunities. Read about their rural work on www. Local Government Business Network visit www. Links to all municipalities can be found on the website. Over 13 million citizens received social assistance benefits in , and of these beneficiaries nine million are children. Thusong Service Centre www. A business plan for the initiative seeks to establish a Thusong service Centre in each of South Africas municipalities.

To aid government in its quest to improve the quality of drinking water served in rural communities, the Water Research Commission WRC has published a new set of guidelines for small water treatment plant operators. Provincial contact details are available at www. The national office may be contacted at The agricultural SETA www. Find their details in the Science and Research chapter. Sustainability A sustainable community ideally does not depend on externalities for its functioning and survival.

It would incorporate the following:. It grows social capital. Fosters conditions for society to thrive and enhances its capacity to meet its needs: Level 1: Natural systems are not damaged.

To do so will undermine and limit that community sooner or later. Level 2: This relates to conditions at the social system level: a decision made elsewhere might result in people not having access to resources, or to education.

Any power that does not recognise interdependence is not sustainable. Local knowledge, wisdom, culture are nurtured, tapped; this is reflected in decisions made at this level. Social and ecological implications are linked. New and existing communities should have some primary activity in its economic make-up. This is important for the creation of a diverse local economy. Towns should not depend on cities for their survival. It maintains and fosters diversity. Biological, social and economic.

The degradation of natural systems is taboo over-harvesting, loss of biodiversity, monocultures, etc. Diversity is natures design framework. It governs itself. The smaller and more local the government, the more participation there is and the more legitimate, accountable and effective it becomes. It is designed with the intention to facilitate all of the above. Design does not stop at the house, street, landscaping, cadastral subdivisions or planning regulations.

It asks questions about what waste is produced, where it goes and how it is managed. It asks questions about how the community is managed and how it earns its keep. It asks questions about how the habitat is enriched by the resident community.

In short, the designers for there are many must create frameworks which nurture communities and their habitats – not to limit or constrain through regulations, for regulation is a signal of design failure. It does not export waste. Limit the waste flow. Keep the biological and technological waste streams separate and upcycle it where waste is used as resource for the next step in the communitys metabolism.

This approach follows natures dictum of waste is food: it eliminates pollution. Create jobs from the waste! It does not import resources. Resources are seen as: material, energy, labour, knowledge, capital and wisdom.

Introduction Agriculture in the provinces 1. Overview In terms of the Constitution of South Africa, Act of , agricultural support to farmers is vested in the provincial governments, which provide farmers with a range of services.

The national government retains the overall regulatory and policy functions and agricultural trade and marketing. Find the links to the Provincial Departments of Agriculture websites at www. For a list of provincial extension officers, see the Emerging Farmer Support chapter.

Find also the enormously useful provincial overviews at www. Detail is given on types of vegetation, agricultural activities in the province and much more. Find the details of provincial farmer unions in the Organised Agriculture chapter. The National Council of Provinces NCOP provides provinces with a forum in which to engage with the national government on matters concerning areas of shared national and provincial legislative powers. The NCOP also oversees the programmes and activities of national government relating to provincial and local government matters.

It meets four times a year. Quarterly news and research magazine. Subscriptions: Magriet de Lange Tel: Information sheets. Eastern Cape www. You will find Agriculture under Departments. Selecting this menu option will take you to www. The services rendered by this Department are aimed towards realising the vision of Global success, Competitive, Inclusive, Socially responsible and in balance with Nature.

The services are divided into 6 programmes, supported by Administration Corporate and Financial services.

An extensive list of contacts is offered on www. Cacadu A general list of contacts can be found at www. This involves identifying and packaging agri-business and agri-processing opportunities. Find contact details on the advert opposite. Find the Telephone Directory on the website. Private Bag X Kimberley North West Invest North West, the provinces trade and investment promotion agency has identified seven agricultural clusters as key areas to drive the provinces economy and develop existing capacity.

These clusters, offering potential investors viable business opportunities include: Renewable energy; essential oil production; goat meat processing; beef beneficiation; edible oils; indigenous medicinal plants and aquaculture. Other opportunities include fruit and vegetable canning and leather production.

For additional information on any of these agricultural initiatives contact Invest North West: call or visit www. Overview At present we rely on a food delivery chain that is unsustainable at all points but is so remote from our awareness that we take it for granted and seldom question its ethics or environmental impact. How will cities feed themselves as Climate Change and Peak Oil begin to impact on our lives? Prof Michael Rudolph.

The rapid urbanisation that is taking place goes together with a rapid increase in urban poverty and urban food insecurity. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties to cope with this development and are unable to create sufficient formal employment opportunities for the poor.

They also have increasing problems with the disposal of urban wastes and waste water and maintaining air and river water quality. Urban agriculture provides a complementary strategy. Next to food security, urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation and social inclusion of the urban poor and women in particular, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes.

Urban agriculture may take place in locations inside the cities intraurban or in the peri-urban areas. The activities may take place on the homestead on-plot or on land away from the residence off-plot , on private land owned, leased or on public land parks, conservation areas, along roads, streams and railways , or semi-public land schoolyards, grounds of schools and hospitals.

Urban agriculture includes food products, from different types of crops grains, root crops, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits and animals poultry, rabbits, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, guinea pigs, fish, etc.

Often the more perishable and relatively high-valued vegetables and animal products and by-products are favoured. In most cities in developing countries, an important part of urban agricultural production is for self-consumption, with surpluses being traded. However, the importance of the market-oriented urban agriculture, both in volume and economic value, should not be underestimated as will be shown later.

Products are sold at the farm gate, by cart in the same or other neighbourhoods, in local shops, on local farmers markets or to intermediaries and supermarkets. Mainly fresh products are sold, but part of it is processed for own use, cooked and sold on the streets, or processed and packaged for sale to one of the outlets mentioned above.

Urban agriculture is an integral part of the urban system. Publications and websites Guidelines for Urban and peri-urban animal agriculture, compiled by the Directorate Animal and Aquaculture Production. Call Standard Banks AgriReviews frequently topics related to urban agriculture.

One such article is referred to under the opening heading. Another article can be found in the 1st quarter of , entitled Urbanisation. Find these at www. It contains concepts, presentations and features. Find the publications, videos and other resources. Find the different urban option at www.

The greater the development in the rural areas in line with the Integrated and Sustainable Rural Development Strategy ISRDS , the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres, leading to declining living conditions there. Urban agriculture Urban agriculture can be defined shortly as the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities.

The most striking feature of urban agriculture, which distinguishes it from rural agriculture, is that it is integrated into the urban economic and ecological system. Such linkages include the use of urban residents as labourers, use of typical urban resources like organic waste as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation , direct links with urban consumers, direct impacts on urban ecology positive and negative , being part of the urban food system, competing for land with other urban functions, being influenced by urban policies and plans, etc.

He can be reached at and at Organic micro-farming and karela elsenburg. Municipality Tel: Afesis-corplan japhtam tshwane. Ukuvuna Permaculture is an independent private company that focuses on the development of practical skills. Its Permaculture urban training centre is well established. Siyakhana Food Garden Project c. Siyakhana conducts inter-andmultidisciplinary research and provides design, training and implementation services to private individuals and to organisations.

Visser capetown. The citys Urban Agricultural Policy a pdf document can be found on its website www. There are currently two urban agriculture centres in the city one in Atlantis and one in Phillipi. National issues Biosecurity 1. Overview Biosecurity is a relatively new word, derived from biological security. Biosecurity covers the introduction of animal pests and diseases, zoonoses, plant pests, the introduction and release of genetically modified organisms GMOs and their products, and the introduction and management of invasive alien species and genotypes.

Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach that encompasses the policy and regulatory frameworks including instruments and activities that analyse and manage risks in the sectors of food safety, animal life and health, and plant life and health, including associated environmental risk. The information in this chapter is weighted on the part of livestock. The reader is asked to also consult other, related chapters of relevance.

A farmer that tries to avoid essential preventative treatment and spending is acting unwisely: animal diseases are detrimental to the economy of the country, to say nothing of human and animal health. The most important step in disease control is to minimise commingling and movement of cattle. Traffic control includes traffic onto your operation and traffic patterns within your operation. It is important to understand traffic includes more than vehicles. All animals and people must be considered.

Animals other than cattle include dogs, cats, horses, wildlife, rodents and birds. Sanitation addresses the disinfection of materials, people and equipment entering the operation and the cleanliness of the people and equipment on the operation. Biosecurity systems on farms are to a large extent the responsibility of the individual producers and are designed to protect the producers own interests. Implementation of a biosecurity plan requires an understanding of the epidemiological principles of disease including the host species, agent disease and environmental factors which must be managed using objective cost effective decision making processes.

For a stock farmer, the four legs of a Biosecurity Programme are: A structured and effective immunisation programme should be in place and adhered to. Minimise contacts with possible infectious agents or animals. Animals introduced into a herd should be certified disease and parasite free. Eliminate sources of infection. Control the movement of people amongst farms and farm animals. South African Pork Producers Organisation SAPPO The goal of biosecurity is to stop transmission of disease causing agents by preventing, minimising or controlling cross-contamination of body fluids feces, urine, saliva, etc.

Biosecurity management practices are designed to prevent the spread of disease by minimizing the movement of biologic organisms and their vectors viruses, bacteria, rodents, flies, etc. Biosecurity can be very difficult to maintain because the interrelationships between management, biologic organisms and biosecurity are very complex. While developing and maintaining biosecurity is difficult, it is the cheapest, most effective means of disease control available, and no disease prevention program will work without it.

Infectious diseases can be spread between operations by: the introduction of diseased cattle or healthy cattle incubating disease; introduction of healthy cattle who have recovered from disease but are now carriers; vehicles, equipment, clothing and shoes of visitors or employees who move between herds; contact with inanimate objects that are contaminated with disease organisms; carcasses of dead cattle that have not been disposed of properly; feedstuffs, especially high risk feedstuff which could be contaminated with feces; impure water surface drainage water, etc.

Roleplayers Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Find notes on all of the directorates at www. The Plant Health menu option at www. Find the presentation Phytosanitary requirements for imports and exports of plants, plant products and other regulated articles, given by this Marianna Theyse of this directorate, at www.

Provincial contacts are listed in the Animal Health chapter. Find the Contacts menu option at www. Profiles, documents e. The statutory levies for the different sectors address, amongst Directorate: Agricultural Disaster other issues, the health and hygiene Management systems in those sectors.

Tel: Animal Health Act, Act No. Objectives This Act provides for measures to promote animal health and to control animal diseases.

It assigns executive authority with regard to certain provisions of this Act to provinces. It regulates the importation and exportation of animals and things and establishes animal health schemes. Main provisions Control measures regarding all animal diseases proclaimed under the Act.

Owners of animals must at all times prevent the infection of his or her animals with any animal disease or parasite, the spreading of the disease or parasite and arrange for the eradication thereof. If it has become clear or reasonably suspected that animals have become infected with a controlled animal disease, like rabies or foot and mouth, immediately report of such infection must be given to the nearest State Veterinarian.

No person may import or export any animal or animal product into or from the Republic unless the National Executive Officer has issued an import or export permit. If owners of animals finds amongst their animals, any animal, which has strayed or has been unlawfully removed or strayed from outside the Republic of South Africa, the animal must immediately be isolated, detained and the nearest State Veterinarian informed, pending further instructions.

In case of any doubt contact the nearest State veterinarian details in the Animal Health chapter or in cases of extreme urgency any veterinarian or Police station. The Act is available on www. They advise farmers, South African Pork Producers agricultural co-ops etc.

Find their details in the Animal Health chapter. The responsibility falls on all commercial farmers to protect their own interests through tick control at a level with which they and their advisers are comfortable. Ticks belong to reasonably distinctive name groups e. Blue tick, red legged tick, bont tick and so on but in reality, to the uninitiated, the engorged or fully fed adults of different species, which are most easily seen, are difficult to differentiate.

Knowledge of the appearance distribution and life cycles of these parasites goes a long way toward identifying individual ticks and helping one select a control measure that will work in a particular circumstance. All ticks lifecycles go through egg, larval, nymphal, and adult stages and depending on the number of hosts supplying feeds to the parasites.

They can be grouped into three distinct categories namely single host, two host and three host ticks. The life cycle may be repeated every 21 to 35 days as in the single host blue tick while other species may only complete 2 or 3 life cycles per year.

It is this rapid life cycle turnover of the blue tick that enables them to develop resistance to many of the available chemicals. There are essentially 5 groups of chemicals for tick control namely Pyrethroids, Amidines or formadines, organophosphates, growth regulators and Macrocytic lactones which do not hold registration for all the tick species.

In a study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State Province published in Tonetti N et al reported that Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis asiatic redwater in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province.

The significance of this is ominous. Livestock producers should be alert to the dangers of introducing resistant ticks and disease into their herds regardless of their geographical whereabouts and should plan and implement biosecurity principles without delay.

Call or write to rickm iafrica. Products The practical course content is Tel: designed for implementation at www. Websites and publications See the websites of associations involved e. Find the links on the Food and Veterinary Services pages at www. These can be viewed under the Publications option at www. See also the other publications in the Animal Health chapter. Find the Comprehensive Atlas at www. Find information on Avian Flu on the website of Birdlife International www.

Technically the Swine Flu outbreak of was a human flu and using the term Swine Flu is erroneous. Read more at www. International Plant Protection Convention www. Zoonoses: diseases of livestock that can affect humans The word zoonosis has its origins in the Greek zoon, meaning animal, and nosos meaning disease.

In , the World Health Organisation Expert Committee on Zoonoses, defined zoonoses as those diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. Zoonotic diseases are an occupational hazard for all those who work with livestock, including farmers and their workers, veterinary staff, those in the abattoir and dairy industries and, ultimately, the consumers of animal products like meat, dairy products and eggs. Preventing the transfer of zoonotic diseases from animals to humans rests on three pillars.

The first of these is keeping animals healthy through good management, vaccinations and parasite control.

The second pillar is personal hygiene and attention to healthy working conditions in the livestock industry particularly details like the provision of good ventilation and accessible ablution blocks.

The third pillar is food hygiene, maintaining a cold chain and the inspection and quality control of animal products from the farm to the table. If these three pillars are kept in place, the chance or risk of catching any disease from an animal is very low you are much more likely to catch diseases from other people! Prevention is better than cure; however, if you suspect you have a zoonotic disease, it is advisable to consult a medical practitioner as soon as possible.

Further details on the symptoms and treatment of zoonotic diseases are obtainable on the World Health Organisation www. The table following summarises the most important zoonotic diseases of livestock and gives some idea of how to prevent them being transmitted. Ticks and biosecurity Some readers may remember the days when livestock movements were strictly controlled and permits were required to transport livestock from one district to another.

Much of the legislation behind this came from the late decades of the 19th century where diseases were poorly understood but it was noticed that dipping and movement controls helped to control tick born diseases such as redwater.

The serious losses experienced by farmers in those days prompted what was an effective biosecurity system but which also created some controversy. Ticks and tick control will provoke heated debates even today with differing opinions on the proper levels of aggression in tick control; however, even with modern drugs and dips, ticks and the diseases they transmit remain. How it is transmitted Contact with blood, skins or meat of diseased cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.

Contact with diseased birds infected with the virulent strain. Consumption of meat or other foods contaminated with the spores or toxins of Clostridium botulinum. Inhalation of or contact with blood or birth fluids of infected cattle. Drinking unpasteurised milk. Prevention Vaccinate cattle every year. Notify state vet if there are sudden deaths in livestock. Do not slaughter and eat sick animals. Do not handle dead birds of any species without gloves, face-masks and protective clothing.

Vaccinate cattle. Food hygiene and cooking at high temperatures. How it is transmitted Cuts and wounds that are exposed to animal manure, pus and would infections of animals. Prevention Wash and disinfect all wounds immediately using running water. Cover wounds if working with animals, meat or milk. Rat control. Control fleas on animals including goats, dogs and cats. Food hygiene. Clean drinking water prevent it being polluted by human and animal excreta.

Wash hands after handling animals and before eating. Prevent water being contaminated with human or animal excreta. Do not crush ticks with your fingernails. Use tick repellents when working in areas with high tick levels. Hygiene during milking.

Prevent transmission between cows. Personal hygiene wash your hands well and scrub your nails before eating. Bites by rat fleas Bubon forms in inguinal lymphnode, fatal pneumonia. Severe acute gastroenteritis. If caused by Ecoli serotype , severe bloody gastroenteritis and organ failure. Severe chronic diarrhoea, difficult to treat.

Flaccid paralysis of muscles; it progresses until the patient cannot sit or stand, eventually unable to breathe. Acute symptoms look like malaria or influenza; Chronic intermittent fever, joint problems. Nodules on the skin and in the lymphnodes; chronic weight loss, severe cough with bloody phlegm. Chronic nervous symptoms that become worse; always fatal as it is incurable.

Colibaccilosis Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Escherichia coli. Vaccination of heifers, regular testing of cattle herd. Hygienic handling of aborted material or afterbirths. Pasteurise milk. Workers in dairies must be checked regularly for TB. Dairy cattle must be tested regularly for TB. Prevent the disease coming into South Africa. Test cattle that die after showing nervous symptoms.

Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Cryptosporidium Contact with the blood of infected animals or bites by the tick Hyalomma spp. Inhalation of droplets from coughing cows; drinking unpasteurised milk. Consumption of brain, lymphnodes or spinal tissue of affected cattle. Contact with in- Red inflamed fective nodules nodule on the on cow teats.

Consumption of the eggs of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts on the brain can lead to epilepsy and madness in people. Large painful Vaccinate pigs nodule on the against Erisipelas. Can also cause vegetative endocarditis growths on the heart valves.

Large cysts on the brain, lungs or in the liver of people. Kidney failure, jaundice and liver failure; responds well to antibiotic treatment. Contagious ecthyma. Red swollen areas of skin of hands or face. Swollen lymphnodes and interstitial pneumonia. Do not feed raw meat, especially cysts from sheep carcasses, to dogs.

Control rats they carry the disease. Test for the disease in livestock if there are abortions. Wash hands well and do not touch your face while working with sheep or goats.

Wear masks if working in dusty kraals; protective clothing when working with aborted foetus and uterine fluids. Prevent contamination of food with animal faeces. Remember personal hygiene and wear protective clothing if working with sick animals or their faeces. Treat and control sarcoptic mange in animals.

Mania and death Vaccinate all dogs. If bitten, go straight to a clinic or doctor and inform the state vet. Fever, retinitis with haemorrhage and edema, causing blindness. Encephalistis, liver and kidney failure.

Can be fatal. Vaccinate sheep if there is an outbreak. Use protective clothing and masks if working with infected animals or carcases. Control mosquitoes. Treat animals with ringworm. Consult a physician if you become infected. Consult a physician for treatment with antibiotics. Leptospirosis Contact with pigs or cattle infected with the disease.

Contact with infected water. Orf Contact with sheep or goats infected with orf. Inhaling dust in the kraals, contact with aborted material from cattle, sheep and goats; drinking unpasteurised milk. Mosquito bites during an outbreak, contact with blood or aborted material from infected sheep or cattle. Blackened area after 10 days where bitten by a tick. Severe headaches. Granulomas in the brain of HIV positive people. Abnormalities in newborn children if mothers infected while they are pregnant.

Salmonellosis Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Salmonella; contact with animals infected with Salmonella. Severe gastroenteritis which can be fatal in the very young and the elderly. Sometimes septicaemia and organ failure. Contact him at Small red itchy areas on the skin due to infection by the mite Sarcoptes scabei. Severe coughing; can result in heart failure and death if untreated.

Have sufficient ventilation when working in pigeon or poultry houses. Use a face mask and gloves if doing necropsies on dead birds. Based on these recommendations, the Government released a strategy document early in It was in this document that the notion of a BEE scorecard was introduced. For the first time there was a mechanism for measuring the progress towards BEE and so now there was a way to manage and drive that process forward. During , and , various draft BEE Codes and Scorecards were debated and put out for public comment.

Finally, in late January , Business, Government, Labour and Civil Society signed off the final BEE Codes of Good Practice which were gazetted on 9 February and thus begun at least a ten year period of measurement of Broad-Based BEE so named because it measures a broad number of contributions by an enterprise to social upliftment not just the transfer of ownership and management. The functions of the Council, chaired by the President, are to advise government on Black Economic Empowerment.

Government plans to hold a national summit in to address challenges and gaps in the policy. The scorecard becomes more important than straight forward ownership, because recognition is given to management control, skills development and supplier development, Employment Equity etc. Overview There has been a global move in the last few years towards requiring businesses to be more accountable for the people they employ; the communities they live in and work amongst; and the businesses with which they do business.

Most developed countries and many developing nations have embraced concepts like Triple Bottom-line Accounting, which requires a business to account for the way they treat society issues like Affirmative Appointments; Skills Development; Corporate Social Investment; Small Business Development and Preferential Procurement and the way they treat the environment. Other countries make use of Social Responsibility Indexes or Investor in People standards to measure and report on the social responsibility of businesses.

First and foremost, BEE is an attempt to encourage all businesses to measure and report on the role they are playing in uplifting the society they are in.

It is about encouraging the formal upliftment of the have-nots or previously disadvantaged. That most of the have-nots in South Africa are black African, Coloured or Indian is a result of past disadvantage. That is why, in South Africa, our socio-economic empowerment programme is, for the foreseeable future, focused on black South Africans. South Africa is pioneering a model for socio-economic empowerment and it will have successes and failures.

Time will show up the mistakes in the policy and these will hopefully be corrected. Lessons like Zimbabwe on our border show what happens when we fail to deal with social imbalances in a structured, international best-practice model. What is true is that if we can fast-track capacity building; create a more-equal sharing of wealth; and continue to grow and be more competitive, we will reap the fruits of these programmes in the years to come. This will be up to individual companies, and the individuals within those companies, as to how well we succeed or how much we fail at becoming more sustainable businesses, communities and a more socially balanced country.

How BEE works The BEE Codes set principles of how organisations are to be measured as to their social contributions as well as defining Scorecards which allocate targets for each element of the scorecard as well as a certain number of points for achieving that target also known as a weighting for that element.

There are a number of scorecards depending on the size, sector or ownership of the business e. Multinationals or public organizations might have slightly amended scorecards. The dti BEE scorecard looks at seven elements of transformation that an enterprise could be measured on.

Below we list the points or weightings for larger businesses those with a turnover of more than R35million per year. The figures in brackets refer to the points or weighting given to the element.

This then adds up to a total of points kind of like writing a test on BEE. The details of the formulae and targets are contained in a series of documents called the Codes of Good Practice for BEE. Black Economic Empowerment: a history How does one go about encouraging an economy to achieve a transformation to a more equitable distribution of wealth without destabilising it? Early attempts by corporate businesses to sell stakes to black shareholders often involved intricate mechanisms of finance that either effectively gave no control to the new shareholder or relied heavily on an increase in share price in order for them to gain any material benefit whatsoever.

Many of these deals were doomed to fail. Some were successful, but have been criticized for putting much wealth in the hands of very few, while for most previously disadvantaged South Africans the struggle continues. This fact did not go unnoticed and in the black business bodies established the Black Economic Empowerment Commission, a think tank of politicians, economists and consultants who set about trying to find an answer to the problems that were holding back economic transformation.

In they released a report that changed Governments thinking on Black Economic Empowerment BEE and painted some broad strokes about the way forward. Firstly, they recommended that Government should get in the driving seat. Secondly, they pointed out that BEE involved more than just the transfer of assets. There were other aspects such as the development of skills, creating equitable standards in the workplace and the general upliftment of communities.

Thirdly, they pointed out that unless there was. In order to calculate the BEE Spend with a company you: multiply the actual amount spent with the company by their recognition level; total these up to calculate the total BEE Spend; divide the result into the total Actual Spend to get a percentage. This figure is then compared with the target on the scorecard in order to calculate the BEE points. As you can see from the above table, the more a customer spends with a supplier, the greater their influence on the customers score.

Ideally, you would want the suppliers you spend the most with to have the best scores. Source: Empowerment Services. What does a BEE score mean? Getting a BEE score is voluntary. There is no legal requirement for any company to obtain one. Your companys score will however contribute to your customers BEE scores and so you will probably find that they will request that you give them an official BEE Certificate in order that they can calculate their score under the Preferential Procurement element.

Other drivers behind getting a good BEE Score might include: Those wishing to access government finance might be required to get a certain minimum BEE Score Certain products may receive a BEE Label in stores depending on the score of the producer or grower Prices paid for land under land reform may be adjusted according to BEE scores of the seller Public perception might drive bigger brands to achieve a reasonable score so as not to fall foul of a disapproving public The social imperative.

If we do not develop our society so that the vast majority participate meaningfully in the economy as soon as possible, we could suffer social or political collapse and we will continue to suffer the economic consequences high and violent crime and high social welfare costs The higher your score, the more you will count towards your customers score.

The degree to which a score counts is illustrated on the following table. The Recognition Level is the factor by which a customers spend with you will be multiplied in order to calculate their BEE procurement spend with you. This leads one to question: What is a Sector Charter and why do we need them? Some Sectors felt the need to adjust the dti Codes to make provision for specific issues facing their own sector or to reward contributions that their sector was best able to make For example: the finance sector is best able to finance empowerment or bank the un-banked so they have included these as targets in their scorecard.

The IT sector can help provide Internet bandwidth and computer centres to schools and communities so they might include that as a target in their scorecard. Agriculture has a very specific contribution to make in terms of agricultural land and has historical issues to deal with including high illiteracy rates and HIV infection rates so chooses to focus attention on these issues amongst others.

The dti Codes set specific rules for establishing Sector Charters or Sector Codes because the country cannot afford to have one sector getting away with murder while another sector has very heavy targets. Therefore, in order to keep everyone on the same general playing field, the dti Codes state the following: A Sector Charter or Section 12 Charter as some call it is the voluntary gathering together of a sector to set itself transformation targets, which it will attempt to keep.

A sector charter can be gazetted for information purposes but has not weight when it comes to determining your BEE score. Even if your sector has a sector charter, you will still be measured on the dti Codes to determine your BEE Status.

The Charter targets are more guidelines for what kinds of contributions the sector expects from its stakeholders. A Sector Code or Section 9 Charter as some call it replaces the dti Codes for that particular sector! There are strict rules for establishing Sector Codes. They must be significantly aligned with the dti Codes; they must include all seven elements e. Ownership, Skills Development, Procurement etc. Therefore, in the absence of a Sector Code, one is automatically measured on the dti Codes.

The AgriBEE Charter was gazetted as a Sector Charter Section 12 Charter and so remains only a guideline and voluntary commitment of the sector rather than a scorecard which Verification Agencies will use for measurement.

Readers should check the dti website www. Some of the main differences are: Micro businesses those turning over less than R5million per year do not get a blanket exemption but are rather encouraged to participate in at least two areas of the scorecard. Qualifying Small Enterprises QSEs those turning over between R5million and R35million per year need to choose 5 out of the seven elements of the scorecard each of which is worth 20 points whereas the dti scorecard requires QSEs to select 4 elements worth 25 points each.

Employment Equity points are reduced from 15 to 10 points and there is more emphasis on upper management. Skills Development is raised from 15 to 20 points to encourage this element. Points are awarded for having BEE and Skills strategies. Preferential Procurement still awards 20 points but redistributes the points to award points for overall percentage of spend spent on good BEE companies and to reward the purchase of goods and services from small and micro-enterprises.

Land and Farming Businesses are separated and an agri-business or farmer can get points by either selling a stake in their agribusiness OR by selling some of their land OR a combination of a little bit of both.

One of the most devastating acts of economic disempowerment in South Africas history was the removal of its indigenous people from the land they had occupied for centuries, initially through force of arms and later through discriminatory laws and a system of taxation designed to force Africans into the industrial labour market.

For these communities, loss of land amounted to a loss of economic independence and for many a loss of a viable livelihood. Formalised in the Land Act and apartheid-era forced removals, this dispossession and its after-effects persist to this day where access to productive agricultural land remains largely the preserve of a racially defined minority. While the industrialisation process of the last century has resulted in largescale urbanisation, there remain significant numbers of South Africans living in rural areas.

Land reform and rural development must therefore necessarily form part of any comprehensive BEE strategy. Black Economic Empowerment directly affects each business and corporate citizen. It is already the new way of doing business, and organisations that ignore it will definitely be marginalised by the rest of the economy in time and eventually be influenced negatively by the rest of the economy.

Farmers should be proactive in their environment to prevent land being repossessed for redistribution to people that have no interest or feeling for agriculture. Producers do not have to give away anything free of charge; a business approach to BEE should be followed continuously. It is, however, very important that everyone realises that a paradigm shift is necessary. Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment codes apply to enterprises, defined by their turnover.

Please note: This may change back to the dti model where each area is worth 25 points and only 4 elements need to be selected but at the time of going to press it was 5 elements each worth 20 Businesses with an annual turnover under R5 million a year are called Emerging Micro Enterprises EMEs , and are automatically given a good BEE status level 4 see table under heading 1. EMEs are exempt from having to obtain a scorecard and do not have to comply with the codes. Please Note: The R5million threshold for EMEs is an indicative threshold, which might be changed when an Agri Sector Code is gazetted based on appropriate benchmarking studies, sub-sector inputs or other consultation.

Despite the above, the AgriBEE Charter encourages the participation of EMEs in transformation in the following ways: An EME can choose to be measured according to any two elements of the scorecard in which case each element is worth 50 points.

An EME can choose to be measured on any three elements of the scorecard in which case each element is worth If it scores Level 3, it will be raised to level 2 All along the food chain, companies are going to be looking at the BEE credentials of their suppliers.

Who oversees the implementation, measurement and ongoing amendments to AgriBEE? The actual measurement of AgriBEE will be done by Verification Agencies who are required to become accredited by the dti to perform this task.

The dti Codes are, needless to say, very generic. They set standards for businesses in general. In order to determine your BEE score, your business will need to be verified.

This means that you need to get an approved verification agency to go through your paperwork and give you a rating a BEE score. The costs of verification will vary depending on the amount of work involved.

The basis for charging will be similar to that of auditors and accountants. It is estimated that for a small business the cost per rating will be between R2 and R10 Having all the information readily available for verification agents when they arrives will help to keep the cost of your verification down. Find the tables showing the scorecards for large businesses and small businesses at the end of this chapter. This is a page A4 book dedicated to BEE compliance and best practice published by the publishers of this National Agricultural Directory.

The book contains anything and everything you could want to know about BEE finance, verifications etc. See www.

Order it from Zebra Press visit www. Call Tony Balshaw. Toshkryll Publishers. Fax: Email gtel gtec. This short and concise guide explains BEE in the family business context.

The CSI Handbook. They may be found by name or by segment e. The BEE menu option takes the visitor to a number of useful documents and papers.

National Strategy Government is of the view that the B-BBEE framework should reinforce skills and rural development, enterprise and social development while it must also attend to issues of job creation through procurement and entrepreneurship. Accredited Training. Labour services. Empowerment Services Tel: William Janisch william empowermentservices. What many do not know, as well, is that the development of the BEE Codes was one of the most participative and collaborative processes ever undertaken to develop a socio-economic measurement framework.

Public submissions and representations were received from thousands of parties and interest groups; hundreds of workshops were held to debate each and every issue with those who had interesting contributions; and the Codes are the product of draft after draft. Foreign Direct Investment would be turned away and South African products and services would become noncompetitive. So they have worked hard to strike a balance between needing South African companies to help invest in the Have-nots and become more socially sustainable; but at the same time, not put burdens on them which are too heavy.

Source: William Janisch, Empowerment Services. Tel: www. Consumers contribute directly to the soial development of producers and farm workers. National Empowerment Fund Tel: www.

Find the highly practical notes on the website. They have had excellent results to date and continue to play a role in developing the sector. A look at the commercial farmers BEE scorecard Farmers in South Africa have already made great contributions with respect to the proposed Scorecard.

Other mechanisms In view of AgriBEE and the requirements that are set against the establishment of new farmers, white South African commercial farmers can make excellent contributions with regard to: mentorship to new beginner farmers to develop technical and business skills; supply mechanisation services for new beginner farmers on contract for compensation OR in exchange for the use of a portion of their land; rent land from new beginner farmers in order to promote their cash flow; donate surplus implements that can be used in a mechanisation pool for rental.

To make a success of AgriBEE will require synergy and creative thoughts. The government has already realised that it has world-class expertise in the South African farmer. A team effort is essential for BEE to be successful and it is recommended that as many partners as possible with common goals are involved so as to spread the risks.

Direct BEE Management Many farmers already have workers committees on their farms that participate in the management of farming activities. Shareholding Numerous workers at farm level already benefit from profit sharing and performance bonus schemes. HR Development and Affirmative Action Affirmative action at all levels Farm workers have already been promoted to foremen, divisional heads or managers on many farms.

Capacity building Many farmers have provided education, bursaries, in job training in agriculture, training in crafts and handiwork, as well as all sorts of mentorship for own and other newcomers on their farms. The supply of fuel, for instance, is mainly from such sources. Sectoral focus Social responsibility South African farmers make great contributions at the rural level with regard to social responsibility and have excelled with respect to: housing clinics recreation centres and sports grounds transport home industries schools other training such as literacy programmes pension and medical schemes.

Black Women representation at Owner-manager level Black representation at Manager-Controller level 6 Black Women representation at Manager-Controller 6 level Black Employees as percentage of total employees Black Women as percentage of total employees 4 4. BEE procurement spend from suppliers in accordance 20 with the BEE procurement recognition system contained in section 5. National issues Climate change and global warming 1.

What is climate change? There is a natural cycle through which the earth and its atmosphere go to accommodate the change in the amount of energy received from the sun. The climate goes through warm and cold periods, taking hundreds of years to complete one cycle. Changes in temperature also influence the rainfall, but the biosphere is able to adapt to a changing climate if these changes take place over centuries.

Unfortunately, human intervention is currently causing the climate to change too fast. · GitHub

Treat and control sarcoptic mange in animals. Government plans to hold a national summit in to address challenges and gaps in the policy. Despite the above, the AgriBEE Charter encourages the participation of EMEs in transformation in the following ways: An EME can choose to be measured according to any two elements of the scorecard in which case each element is worth 50 points. The actual measurement of AgriBEE will be done by Verification Agencies who are required to become accredited by the dti to perform this task. To reach its full potential the country relies on a vibrant agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector in providing food and employment opportunities. Towns should not depend isi cities for their survival. Thusong Powerpoint download 2020 Centre www. Roleplayers Agricultural Colleges Find details of all Colleges in the Agricultural education and training chapter. African Drylands По ссылке Atlas www. Limit the waste flow.


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