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Frankfurt a. Milo, Daniel, Annales 39, 1: Pym, Anthony, Translation and Text Transfer. Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie. Robyns, Clem, In Clem Robyns, ed. Translation and the Re Production of Culture. Snell-Hornby, Mary, Translation Studies.

An Integrated Approach. Toury, Gideon, In Holmes et al. In Search of A Theory of Translation. Descriptive Translation Studies, – and Beyond.

Translation Library Van Bragt, Katrin et al. Bibliographie des traductions frangaises Repertoires par discipline. Leuven: Presses universitaires de Louvain. Uitnodiging tot de vertaalwetenschap. Muiderberg: Coutinho. Vermeer, Hans J. Voraussetzungen fiir eine allgemeine Translationstheorie.

Skopos und Translationsauftrag. Wallerstein, Immanuel, Geopolitics and Geoculture. Essays on the Changing World-System. Wauters, Stefaan, Traduction, Langue, Nation. Nederlandstalige en Afrikaanstalige media. Vlaamse Raad, Brussel, maart Brussel, VUB Press. The country was facing East and the newly forged political links created a huge demand for the new lingua franca of the region, that is Russian.

In Hungary, a non- Slavic country, the study of Russian had no traditions at all. By an act of political will – an early example of conscious language-policy -, a new academic field was created, clearly with the aim of building a large body of Russian speakers to link up Hungary and the Soviet Union for the foreseeable future.

During the forthcoming 40 years, every Hungarian student, in fact, every single Hungarian child – not only in the cities – but even in the smallest of village schools, was taught Russian as a first foreign language, from the age of ten. Russian became the only mandatory foreign language under high school level.

Where did Russian translators come from? By force of the situation, almost exclusively former Greek, Latin, German and French teachers were made to teach Russian, though most of them were only a few lessons ahead of their pupils – obviously, the level of tuition was abysmal. Trieste, Italy. The majority of Russian translators were trained in the Soviet Union. He was employed at the Translation Office – set up in the prison by the secret police to translate particularly sensitive materials, acquired by secret agents.

Literary translation in this period became the livelihood of some of the best writers and poets of the country, who were banned from publishing their own works. The popular image of the translator was a dry little old man in faded, old fashioned clothes, making a miserable livelihood by long hours of hackwork. Most translators worked part-time to supplement their income of other sources. Hungarian poets have traditionally regarded their translations as an integral part of their oeuvre.

Few of them turned into full-time, professional translators, yet their level of professional awareness was very high. Today, the programme includes two semesters of postgraduate studies and training in the following language combinations: English-Hungarian, French- Hungarian, German-Hungarian, Russian-Hungarian.

Candidates applying to the program are required to hold a university degree or college diploma, and Certificate of Proficiency in their second language. This form of training has been offered by at least 6 to 8 universities for the last twenty years. It has never had however much significance, as employers largely disregard and rarely ask for it. There has never been institutional training for literary translators. Many young and aspiring literary translators were first introduced to translation by such masters of the trade, before they found their way to professionalism.

One notable exception however has to be mentioned here. It did not require anything more, than reliable, run-of-the-mill translations of highly formalized texts. After the political changes in , the translation market underwent dramatic changes as well. Among other developments, the total collapse of the Comecon- related market should be mentioned in this context. The changes in political life – the establishment of a freely elected Parliament, the multi-party system, the rapid growth of private ownership and a free market economy, – though not without precedents in Hungarian history, meant the close emulation of Western patterns – largely by translation, in more than one sense of the word.

The Office fell under the authority of the Ministry of Justice, and was the only institution in Hungary authorized to notarize translations. On the translation market they have to compete with more than new private translation offices. Such a large number of new ventures – though their professional standards vary widely – is a clear sign of a hugely increased market, of course. A new linguistic environment came into existence virtually overnight – defined by the translation of a mass of business and other documents to and from English, German, etc.

The new environment requires a very creative approach on the part of translators and interpreters. Hungarian usage is undergoing great changes and translators, interpreters often find themselves challenged to introduce old-new terms – like stock-exchange, share, mortgage, limited liability, to mention just a few obvious examples – that were virtually forgotten over the last years.

Apart from the economy, the media is another huge market for translations: the growing number of TV-channels and the explosive development of video-rentals. In Hungary, there is a long tradition of dubbing, and viewers are used to it.

Previously, film-dubbing was regarded as an art-form in itself. Deep-going changes came about in book-publishing as well. After the political changes suddenly hundreds of new publishers appeared, and as bookshops were unable to cope with the flood of books, unpublished and banned for decades, they were sold in the streets. Yet, the new scene is not altogether favourable to the profession. New and starkly profit-oriented publishers require fast work above all and are only too happy to sacrifice quality in exchange for speed and low rates.

Quality is now heavily dependent on charitable foundations, whose sponsorship alone makes quality publishing still possible in Hungary.

Translators, who used to be proudly signing their published work, nowadays rather hide behind pen-names to evade taxation. The image of interpreters has undergone even larger changes. The truth is, that this picture is not essentially alien to reality. From the bilingual slave in the shadow, they used to be, interpreters have moved center stage and have become actually very well paid international communicators. The continuing and dynamic growth of the language-market in general is the driving force behind the unprecedented increase in training facilities.

Their memberships seem to be overlapping however and both of them – functioning perfectly legally, – claim to work for the protection of the interests of the trade. But as both of them have only a limited membership, none of them can be called universally representative. Consequently, the role they play is also rather limited. Studies of translation in Hungary The rich tradition of literary translation in Hungarian, – going back to an anonymous Lament of the Virgin Mary in verse, translated probably from an as yet unknown Latin original, and which survives in a codex from the beginning of the XIII.

This however, never crystallized into a fully fledged theory of translation, in the late XX. More systematic academic research in translation studies was first spurred by the needs of translator training and is marked therefore by the setting up of the Training Center for Translators and Interpreters TCTI in Klaudy , Cs. Nagy , P. Heltai , L. Thomas – J. Klaudy , K. Bart – K. Klaudy – J. Klaudy – S.

Ferenczy , Gy. The work done in Hungary – by force of circumstances – was almost entirely endogenous and uninfluenced by international research, with the only exception of the decisive intellectual inspiration coming from eminent Russian translatologists, L.

Barkhudarov, A. Shveitser and V. Komissarov, whose pioneering work in the theory of translation has been virtually unknown in the West until very recent times. Bart and K. Klaudy in and reprinted in Jakob- son, 1. Revzin -V. Yu Rozentsveig, A. Shveitser, V. Komissarov, A. Popovic ; The Process of Translation O.

Kade, E. Nida ; The Notion of Equivalence J. Catford, L. Barkhudarov, Y. Retsker ; Pragmatic Aspects of Translation K. Reiss, A. Neubert ; Machine-translation A. Booth, P. Garvin, R.

Kotov – Yu. Nelyubin, M. Kay, I. Bart and S. The book brings together the very best Hungarian translators of prose and poetry – most of them poets and writers themselves – who were active at the time. Bonyhai and F. Paepcke, H-G. Gadamer, M. Wandruszka, D. Seleskovitch, M. Lederer, A. Lilova, E. Osers in Hungarian translation, and with reviews on books of P. Newmark, G. Toury, J-R. Ladmiral, H. Meschonnic, E. Coseriu etc. Translation and Text Linguistics , 3.

Translation and Interpreting , 4. Translation and LSP , 5. Translation Theory in Francophone Countries , 6. Translation and Hungarian Usage Papers on Translation Theory , a periodical publication edited by Kinga Klaudy. Klaudy and J. After long years of isolation this was the first opportunity for Hungarian trans- latologists to meet their colleagues from abroad, to exchange ideas.

References Albert S. Equivalence as a Category of Translation Theory. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Bart I. Literary Translation Today. Budapest: Gondolat.

The Science of Translation. Selection from Essays on Translation Theory. School for Translation. Budapest: Corvina. Bonyhai G. Nagy M. Erdei Gy. The Theory and Teaching of Translation. Budapest: TIT. Ferenczy Gy.

The Theory and Practice of Translation. Collection of Essays on Translation. Heltai P. Angol-magyar lexikai kontrasztok. English-Hungarian Lexical Contrasts. Kardos L. Some Questions of Literary Translation. Klaudy K. The Technique of Russian-Hungarian Translation. Budapest: MTA. Topic, Comment and Translation.

The Lexis and Grammar of Translation I. The Technique of German-Hungarian Translation. The Technique of English- HungarianTranslation. Kohn J. Szombathely: BDTF. Translation from Russian into Hungarian. Lendvai E. Szeged: JATE. Hungarian Tradition. In: Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies, ed. London: Routledge. The Art of Translation. A Handbook for Translators. The Technique of Translation.

Thomas, H. Budapest: International House. A more systematic approach to translation was needed, and the discipline that appeared to have the theoretically objective tools necessary to address the problem was Linguistics. Wilkins , Dalgarno , Leibniz etc. Kloepfer The dominant ideas of that era lead directly to the linguistic-based theories of modern times and the work of N. The fifties and the mid-sixties brought a huge upswing in the field of linguistic oriented writings on translation.

In the wake of the Russian linguist A. Revzin and V. Similarly to Chomsky deep structure , Nida assumes that there exists a deep, unified entity: the core, the kernel constructions from which everything is derived. He explains his methodology as follows: It is both scientifically and practically more efficient 1 to reduce the source text to its structurally simplest and semantically most evident kernels, 2 to transfer the meaning from source language on a structurally simple level, and 3 to generate the stylistically and semantically equivalent expression in the receptor language Nida But he never explains to us how exactly the deep structure transfer occurs.

There are some essential differences between the views of Nida and Chomsky: the former does not privilege the sign, but the response to the sign.

If a translation can solicit the response God intends, then the translation is successful Gentzler Another dissimilarity is the inclusion by Nida of the culture-specific experience of the person receiving the message. Probleme und Methoden Wilss distinguishes between two dominant linguistic theories based on dissimilar foundations: that of descriptive linguistics and that of generative grammar. Translation is possible for Wilss on the basis of the existence in all languages of syntactic and semantic deep-structure universals as well as a core of common experience.

Thus Wilss adopts the universals from Chomsky, absorbing then in his own theory the experiential component found in Nida. Does this lead to anarchy?

Does it mean freedom ad absurdum for the translator? Being aware of this he concludes: The lingual aspects of translation studies belong to translation theory, which is unquestionably a linguistic discipline.

For the translator, whose work is artistic composition, this unit is the element of the source-text ST he has to distinguish and to reproduce while composing the target-text TT. For the translatologist it is the tool of analysis. The basic logeme for all translations is the ST as a whole.

It can consist of one syllable The translator has the right and duty to determine a hierarchy of the ST logemes, trying to preserve the most important and sacrificing others. Because the attempt to transfer all ST logemes into the TT is an impossible one, we need objective criteria to evaluate the quality of a translation. Has the translator identified the ST-logemes?

Philological criterion 2. Which ST logemes have been transposed and which of them sacrificed? Were the omitted ST logemes properly replaced by TT elements? Compensatory criterion 4. How did the translator reproduce the ST logemes and the compensatory elements? Holmes coined the term Translation Studies , which opened up the possibility of interdisciplinary approaches. Employing semiolinguistic research by J.

Kristeva, J. Culler, J. Greimas who applied Chomskian theories to his system of analysis of the narrative , R. Translated literature becomes a system in its own right and the accent is shifted away from the individual literary translation to the study of a large body of translated literature by the polysystemists Itmar Even-Zohar and Gideon Toury especially , in order to establish its systemic features. This point of convergence has been reached by the rise of corpus linguistics’.

It will also allow us to explore, on a larger scale than was ever possible before, the principles that govern translational behaviour and the constraints under which it operates Baker The COBUILD project set up at Birmingham University, with funding from Collins publishers was and continues to be a crucial enterprise which led to an impressive expansion of corpus-based computational linguistic research for example Corpus-based lexicography; Sinclair: ; Clear: Chomsky had, effectively put to flight the corpus linguistics of the early generation.

This shift of perspective from meaning to usage, from a conceptual to a situational orientation gave a decisive impetus to corpus-based studies. Although the usefulness of corpora in Translation Studies is undisputed, and their employability abundantly and well argued in theory, their practical exploitation for a more revealing insight into the specific structure of the languages involved, and for improving translational results is still at a preliminary stage.

One of the first was Hans Lindquist , who advocated the use of corpus-based studies in the preparation of materials for training translators. Mona Baker ; does not only furnish evidence for the powerful stimulus which theoretical research into the essence of translation phenomena will receive from the impact of corpus techniques, but she also provides a systematic overview of the corpus-typology and of the relevant software already used on a wide scale, outlining the obvious applications and future perspectives of corpora in Translation Studies.

The most important contribution of this last mentioned type which has not yet been set up anywhere for translation research is to identify structures which are characteristic to translated texts, regardless of the source and target languages involved. They would enable not only the comparison of two languages SL vs. TL or two texts, but that of translation where a coherent model already exists in language A with free text production in the same language.

Parallel corpora have the essential function of discovering translation norms in specific contexts, and of revealing both the solutions and the methods by which professional translators overcome the numerous problems they are faced with during their translational endeavours, while offering realistic models.

The concept of norm has played an important role in the development ofTrans- lation Studies since the s. The frequent use of the present participle in Hungarian texts probably more frequent than in original Hungarian texts suggests that this form may be a candidate for a typical feature norm of the Hungarian subsystem of translated texts. We need of course reliable data to support this hypothesis, and this may be facilitated by access in addition to the parallel corpora to comparable corpora.

Baker assumes that lexical density the percentage of lexical as opposed to grammatical items contributes to information load. A high type-token proportion may be explained as a result of the phenomenon of lexical simplification for instance the limited number of synonyms which is specific for mediated communicative acts.

This circumstance is probably due to the specific traditions of the target culture and to the expectancies of the target readership Klaudy Notes 1. Although the beginnings of the interlingual translation are situated in immemorial times, a practice-based, self-conscious reasoning on translation, on its principles and rules, with decisive reverberation in the thinking of modern ages originated in the last century of the Roman republic, producing vigorous literary and translation activity.

Blatt: Remarques sur Vhistoire des traductions latines. XXXII, p. Nida claims that his theory of translation was already well developed before Chomsky. The existence of deep-seated formal universal It does not, for example, imply that there must be some reasonable procedure for translating between languages Chomsky That means that everything can be expressed in any language.

Kingscott calls him, died on 2 July I was privileged to be one of his friends, and it is a duty of honour for me to talk about his scientific heritage. For instance in E. Poe, Ed. Chomsky, University of Texas, , p. Coseriu who regards norm as an intermediate term between langue and parole.

Sistema, norma y habla. Montevideo: Univ. The six principal differences between the literary and the linguistic oriented theory are presented by Klaudy as follows: – The literary approach is concerned mainly with translation of outstanding literary works, linguistic approach is concerned with translation of everyday texts too.

Klaudy Stimulation operating below the threshold limen of perception. English Corpus Linguistics. Studies in Honour of Jan Svartvik.

London afid New York: Longman. Baker, M. Corpus Linguistics and Translation Studies. Implications and Applications. Baker et al. Corpora in Translation Studies. An Overview and Suggestions for the Future Research, manuscript. Bartsch, R. Norms of Language. London: Longman.

Bassnett, S. Translation, History and Culture. London: Pinter. Burgess, G. Valencia in print Catford, J. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press. Chestermann, A. In: Target Chomsky, N. Syntactic Structures. Gravenhage: Mouton Chomsky, N. Aspects of Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.

Clear, J. The British National Corpus. In: The Digital World. Text-based Computing in the Humanities, ed. Landow – P. MIT Press. Coseriu, E. Even-Zohar, I. In: Literature and Translation, ed. Holmes et al. Leuven: ACCO, Firth, J.

Linguistics and Translation. In: Selected Papers of J. Firth Gentzler, E. Contemporary Translation Theories. London and New York: Routledge. Jakobson, R. On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. In: Brewer ed On Translation, ed by R.

New York: Harward University Press. Kingscott, G. Linguistic Theory of Translation. Klaudy et al. Kloepfer, R. Timisoara: Facia. Stockholmer Germanistische For- schungen 9. Kurz, I. Babel 4. Leech, G. In: The Linguistics Encyclopedia, ed by K. The state of the art in corpus linguistics.

In: English Corpus Linguistics, ed by K. Aijmer – B. London and New York: Longman. Lindquist, H. Wilss – G. Neubert, A. Snell Hornby. Nida, E. Toward a Science of Translating. Leiden: Brill.

Science of Translation. Language Outline of a Systematic Translatology. Robinson, D. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Scott, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Searle, J. Philosophical Review Sinclair, J. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Looking Up. London: Collins Sinclair, J.

The Automatic Analysis of Corpora. In: Directions in Corpus Linguistics. Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm 4 August ed. Berlin- New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Snell-Hornby, M. Linguistic Transcoding or Cultural Transfer? A Critique of Translation Theory in Germany. In: Translation, History and Culture, ed. Bassnett – A.

Toury, G. Leuven: AC CO. In Search of a Theory of Translation. Ulmann-Margalit, E. The Emergence of Norm. Varadi T. On New Resources in Computational Lexicography. Hunyadi- K.

Debrecen: KLTE. Stylistics plus Interpretation. Vinay, J. Paris: Didier. Wilss, W. Probleme undMethoden. Stuttgart: Klett. The present article sets out to attempt to answer to following questions: 0. If a given text in a source language is used to prepare several translations in a target language, by either the same or a different translator, is it possible to discern a fundamental strategic, conceptional or philosophical modification, or are there only relatively unimportant superficial differences as concerns the language and the method ; in other words, do language and other differences reflect some kind of change in the basic concept and, if so, what are the underlying reasons for this?

Before making an attempt to answer these questions, we must make some statements relating to theory and methodology. The process of translating is considered to be an activity consisting of numerous linguistic and extralinguistic psychological, mental and pragmatic components, which cannot be dealt with by excluding the translator as was long the case.

There is a certain philosophy in all translations, even if the translator himself denies it. This philosophy has nothing to do with the genre of the text to be translated, whether it be a novel, an essay, a philosophical treatise, a poem, a technical text or the instructions for the use of an electric razor.

Although all texts have a given meaning, sense, style and semiotics, all texts have a different sense, meaning, style and semiotics, and, just as we cannot say that two texts are completely different, we cannot say that two texts are completely alike either. We can also save ourselves trouble by not trying to define the difference between translations of literary works and technical texts, i.

Ladmiral I would merely like to refer to the fact – elaborated in detail elsewhere cf. Albert – that I consider the existing text typologies too rigid, meaningless and lacking in delicate nuances, compared to the great variety of the actually existing texts. Let us accept the point of view of Karl Jaspers, who says that philosophy is both an act and meditation on this act. Let us consider again the above statement, that we cannot say that two texts are completely different or completely alike.

After this short theoretical introduction, let us now analyse the questions mentioned at the beginning of this paper. This is certainly so, as the texts to be translated can, in an empirical way, be relatively easily and reliably categorized as a certain literary genre. However, things are not so simple. The point is not that the translator will translate a novel in a novel—like way i. For instance, a translator who, in a novel, follows the same strategy when translating the dialogues and the narrative or descriptive parts, commits a grave mistake.

The first version was published in , and the second in I will return to this point later. It is even more interesting to compare texts made from the same source language, at more or less the same date, but by two different translators. I could hardly recognise this part in the complete text translated by someone else published some years later. This can well be seen from the text of the second complete edition.

Graham , Johnson The subject is a rather far-reaching one, I would mention only what I consider the most important part: the role of the significant features. Each text has certain features that a reader, a decoder, a translator, an analyser, etc. Clearly, the more complicated, the more multiple, or the more connotative a text, the greater the number of its components that may be significant.

This is where and why he has to realize his own concept, his own philosophy: he himself has to decide which features of the text he considers to be more significant than the others, i. No theory of translation will tell him which features are more significant than the others in a given text; he himself has to decide about this. Thus, theoretically, a strange paradox can arise: the translator tries to consider all features significant and transmit all of them into the target language text.

Let us suppose he succeeds in doing so. His translation will certainly not he good will not be equivalent. I think that this is the basic difference between a translation done by a man and a translation done by a machine. A man always has some kind of philosophy, strategy, background knowledge, experience and culture, whereas a machine has not.

Lederer The role of these significant features can be illustrated very well with the help of some Balzac translations that appeared in Hungary towards the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. This principle method went to the opposite extreme in the ten-volume Balzac collection published in Hungarian in It is not easy to decide whether they did right.

However, it seems that they disregarded the different functional rules of the two languages. However, primarily owing to the accuracy and unambiguity of their linguistic referential relations, they are always clear and readily understood.

The same does not go for the Hungarian sentences of the same length. They are not always understandable at the first reading and seem to be ponderous and complicated. This is due primarily to linguistic features: in Hungarian, there are no genders, and thus there are no possibilities for referential grammatical sequences either; there is only one pronoun in the third person; etc. The question can be formulated from an aesthetic aspect of course: which translation is better, more beautiful and more equivalent etc.

Naturally, this cannot be decided on the basis of such a single aspect. In contrast, the Eugenie Grandet translation informs me about a lot of other things: the condition of the Hungarian language years ago, the relation between this condition and the public at the time and, last but not least, the philosophy and the efforts of the translator. For all these reasons, the translation made years ago is much more interesting for me and has much more to say than the modern, in every respect better translation of the novel in contemporary Hungarian.

They would not understand it and this would not be fair to Balzac either. In summary, we can say that a given literary work can be translated into some target language for a given linguistic community for several reasons.

We have to mention the following points: 4. The above factors are obviously closely connected with one another, and in a way can influence one another. Finally, I would like to draw attention to one more thing. With the help of certain significant features, a linguist who compares the two texts, a critic or an aesthetician etc. Thus, irresponsible translators should realize that the responsibility is theirs alone and not to be shifted to anyone else.

Quelques aspects de traduction philosophique. Acta Romanica. XIII: Le traducteur dans le texte. In: Theory and Practice of Translation, ed. Grabs – G. Lang Malmberg. Graham, J.

Difference in translation. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Johnson, B. Taking Fidelity Philosophically.

Difference in Translation, ed. In: J. Graham: Ladmiral, J-R. Paris: Payot. Elements de traduction philosophique. In: La traduction, J-R. Ladmiral – H. Meschonnic sous la direction de , No.

Sourciers et ciblistes. Lederer, M. Capelle – F. Debyser – J. Goester sous la direction de , No. These days very few authors acknowledge the existence of just one of the components. Most views give emphasis to a ratio of influence stressing the primacy but not the exclusion of one over the other. The nature vs. Both views divide speech ability into components and subcomponents. The best-known and the most accepted is the distinction between speech perception and production.

The two main components, according to the linguistic levels, can further be subdivided into phonetic perception – articulatory execution, syntactic perception – syntactic planning – execution, semantic planning etc. Problems arise, however, with the components and subcomponents in question since there is no logical conclusion to the division process; any subcomponent can be further subdivided. Reading can e. The other problem is what can be called a component subcomponent of speech activity at all.

Bilingualism and translation Translation has a peculiar position in the theory of bilingualism. One of the typologies of bilingualism goes deeply into examining whether translation plays a role in bilingual processes or not.

Questions 1 Is translation a natural part of speech activity as, e. The experiment 2. Objectives Experiments with the technique of miniature artificial language are generally used for measuring the knowledge of the mother tongue as well as that of a foreign language.

Participants Four age groups participated in the experiment, each of them consisting of children. All the children studied a foreign language English, German or Russian , they attended the same school, and even the teachers were the same for some of the classes. The circumstances The children were given two sheets of paper. The first gave both instructions and text as follows instructions were given orally as well.

Try to decipher the message with the help of the explanations and words given here! General outcome The study for various reasons will not compare the age-related correctness of translations. Just a few remarks: 1 A general improvement is observed from grade to grade. This tendency is remarkable because children in these classes do not learn translation in an explicit way though they may have had similar kinds of homework.

This makes us deem translation a latent component of language competence which, to a certain extent, develops itself. This means there are only few children who have no sense of translation at all. Error analysis The analysis of errors will be done according to a general model of translation: Source Memory Language Text Analysis Semantic Encyclopedic Representation.

Knowledge Synthesis Target Language 3. Group II. A visitor comes to the horse after them a boat comes. The witch tells what happened to her. Second step: Gradual analysis: textual information is first separated from metalinguistic information. Group I. In knocked he straight number John. The visitors liked light milk since this time between lightness, John In 5 the number stands for the definite article the , which means the symbol used in metalinguistic description is reflected.

Since this time 1 is John and visitor between 1 friendship only 1 friendship 3. Visitor the lightness[acc. A visitor a horse from planet a mars from 5. John to. Visitor no 1 likes. Since this time no is John and guest between 1 friendship 2. Group IV. Horse guest came onto horse earth[acc. Guest horse The above examples infer that separation of metalinguistic information from textual information is not easy at all. A visitor is coming for 1 hour for one to the earth 2.

The guest lightness liked since this time. Encyclopaedic knowledge First step: The lack of encyclopaedic knowledge results in nonsense texts. From a Mars 2. Guest comes from the planet from a Mars 2. A visitor comes a to from an earth from a Mars. A visitor came to the earth a mars. The earth knocked in to him. He knocked in to a John. A guest is visiting the Earth from the Mars.

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