Wind power generation and wind turbine design free download
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Wind Turbine Vectors – Wind power generation and wind turbine design free download
In this study, when every part of gearbox was completed, box part can be created after these process. Wind turns blade of windmills, taken spin is given to small generator to produce electricity. Because guide line linear in head part. Because these parts must be bounded but also must be moved. Cao H final thesis. Results In this study we want to see deformation which total and y-direction. Because every part must be controlled from engineering laws and formula.❿
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Capture a web page as it appears now for use as a trusted citation in the future. Uploaded by Roboburger on April 26, Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person’s head and chest. The air mass tends to move from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. This difference in heat and pressure between air masses causes wind to form. Wind affects many natural phenomena directly.
For example, cyclones, thunderstorms and indirectly Tsunamis can be caused by wind. Moreover, because of the effect of the wind at the surface of the oceans and seas waves come to life.
The only forms of negative environmental impact in the operational phase are noise and visual disturbance, as well as possible effects on flora and wild life; these aspects may be a hindrance to installation in certain locations, but there are many locations where they are not a significant issue.
Lifecycle energy balance estimates indicate that the energy required for the combined installation and end- of-life disposal phases of a wind power system is typically recovered in 6—12 months of operation. With a standard lifetime of 20 years this means an energy yield factor the ratio of energy produced to energy consumed of between 20 and History of Wind Turbine The first recorded examples of wind powered machine in history is the wind wheel of Hero of Alexandria 10 AD- 70 AD but the first known practical power plants were built in Persia now Iran , from the 7th century.
These plants were used in sugarcane and wheat industries. There are some sayings that German crusaders took their windmill making skills from Syria around Advanced wind turbines however, were described by Fausto Veranzio.
In the book “Machine Novae” he illustrated vertical axis wind turbines with curved or V-shaped blades. Brush after he consulted his peers and professors. Although at that time Blyth’s invention was considered uneconomical in the U. K, it was more cost effective in countries with widely scattered populations.
By the time twentieth century there were windmills in Denmark alone with the estimated power of 30 MW. At the time of WWI, total of , windmills were made a year in America, mostly for water-pumping. Decades later wind generators were common on farms in the U. S where distribution systems had not been installed. This was a kw generator connected to local distribution system of 6. From the reports, its yearly capacity factor of 32 percent, which was not divergent to current wind machines. Although in the the first megawatt class turbine was ready to service, it critically suffered from shortage of materials during the war.
However, anti-nuclear protest in Denmark, local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain and large investors in the U.
S lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Also they can also include blade or not. Therefore, we have to classify them.
Horizontal Axis 2. These turbines have a tower that has rotor shaft and electrical generator system at the centrum. And these parts must be pointed into the wind. This situation can be solved by wind vane for small turbines but large turbines generally use wind sensor in order to solve the problem. Downwind machines have been built, because they do not need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind.
In high winds, the blades can also be allowed to bend, which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Because, these have low torque ripple, which helps to good reliability. The blades usually colored white because planes need to see them. Vertical Axis Vertical-axis wind turbines have the main rotor shaft positioned vertically.
One advantage of this method is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective and this give us advantage for changeable wind direction areas. Also, the generator and gearbox can be positioned near the ground. Therefore, maintenance of gearbox and generator can be easily completed. However, these type of turbines produce much less energy than horizontal axis. Also they have to take extra force at the start of motion because their starting torque is very low.
The cycloturbine variety has variable pitches to reduce the torque pulsation and it is self-starting. They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops. Nowadays the industry has lots of wind turbine types. Nevertheless, wind turbines share the same components every brand. General turbine components below disclosed.
Tower The tower is the largest and heaviest part of the wind turbine. Generally, tower has cylindrical conical but manufacturing of the tower is very hard and it cost directly to cost.
Height of the towers are generally 20 meters starting up to meters. The towers, which are very large in size, are manufactured as modules are combined where the turbine will be erected.
Blades Rotor blades are the point where the wind turns kinetic energy into mechanical energy. When the wind forces the blade to move, some of the wind energy is transferred to the rotor. Wings can be fixed or angled. This is an important feature for the braking mechanism. Furthermore, it is also facilitated to start when the mechanism starts.
For wings, another issue is that the cross-section changes when moving from tip to root. Gearbox The torque we get from the blades is a low rpm suitable for the generator. Generators will have an average of revolutions per minute they must have a spin to produce energy. The inside of the gearbox, we can separate it as low speed shaft, gearbox and high- speed shaft. With the rotation of the propellers, torque is transferred from the hub to the low-speed shaft section where it will turn 50 times faster sent to high speed shaft section.
Thus, our output to the required revolutions provided. In emergencies, stopping with mechanical brakes inside the gearboxes can be provided and necessary repairs can be made. Generator The generators used can be alternating current or direct current generators. Electric power will be obtained, even if there is an insufficient alternative current or direct current, these currents can be made suitable with electronic devices. Generally, direct current generators are not used in large wind energy.
Direct current generators are used in small diameter wind turbines. And some wind turbines have two generators for low and high currents. Brake System Braking systems of the latest and modern turbines are divided into two. The aerodynamic braking system is based on turning the blades about 90 degrees on the longitudinal axis side or rotating the blades 90 degrees. The fact that the wings are fixed or angled is a factor affecting the aerodynamic brake design. In the mechanical braking system, another braking system, the situation consists of slowing down and stopping the turbine in a controlled manner which helps streamline braking.
It is used to control the speed control event, which we will see in our next titles. The mechanical brake system is placed inside the gearbox. YAW Mechanism This mechanism is used in most horizontal axis wind turbines. Its purpose is to turn the head of the turbine according to the change in the direction of the wind’s blow and to ensure that the turbine gets better wind.
Generally, two electric motors help the working mechanism and the head is turned over the yaw bearing. Materials of Wind Turbines The importance of the material has been recognized very well in many machines and vehicles produced today. Material quality and properties have great importance in Wind Turbines. With the rapid development in the material technology recently, competition in the market has increased. Both the aerodynamics and durability of the blades used in the Wind Turbine have great importance in their efficiency.
Today, it is clear that the most suitable materials for wings are composite materials. For example, economical, performance characteristics, values analysis, damage analysis and benefit analysis. Composite Materials To explain briefly, composite materials are obtained by combining materials with different properties in nature in different ways granular, layered, etc.
The main purpose of composite materials is to combine materials that do not provide all of the desired properties strength, aging resistance, fracture toughness, thermal properties, weight, etc. The introduction of composite materials historically coincides with the times of World War II. The materials that have been used since the beginning of can be seen as the process of replacing steel and aluminum alloys with lighter parts by improving the strength, wear resistance and fracture toughness properties.
In fact, the properties of composite materials with carbon fiber add much higher values, but their high cost is their biggest disadvantage. Airfoil is the cross-sectional shape of a wing, blade or sail.
An airfoil shaped body moving through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. These forces are called Lift Forces. The first wind turbines were using thrust. But now, new generation of wind turbines use aerodynamic force. These forces can help when we use airfoil.
Working principle of airfoil gives us more efficiency. When an airfoil is moved through the air, it is capable of producing lift. Wings, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tails surfaces, and propellers are all examples of airfoils. Understanding of Airfoils Aerodynamic Logic In the airfoils affected by two different forces.
These are vectors and wings can turn with their support. We can easily understand with vector system. These forces are lift force and drag force. If we combine these forces, we can calculate total force.
And we can notate it as FD. Lift force can be notated as FL. Total force effects on this direction. This is the working principle of airfoils in wind turbines. According to the Figure.
But we have to look at wind turbine. For example, let us examine Figure. This system can give an example about wind turbine working principle.
We have to assume middle of tunnel is wind turbine. Now we can examine the relationship between two parts with Bernoulli Principle. Now we have to talk about the thrust. Thrust is the axial force applied by the wind on the rotor of a wind turbine. We have to determine our boundaries value. If our middle part wind turbine part is a wall, power extract will be 0.
Because we do not have any velocity in outlet. And if our middle part is a space, power extract will be 0 too. Because as you know, there is no mechanism in here and fluid will not change, power cannot be obtained. So, it must be some maximum value in between these two situation.
We try to define a quantity that sort of tells how middle part wind turbine is performing and we try to differentiate the total output.
This value is called axial interference factor, this factor is given as notation a. If a is 1, it must be the situation 1 middle part is wall. If a is 0, it must be the situation 2 middle part is space. We have to check this. We can write power as in Equation 1. But 1 is not possible because it means that wind turbine must be a wall. Choosing of Location With development of wind energy industry, wind farming technology improve themselves in rough and flat terrain.
For gain maximum efficiency from wind energy and operating with maximum efficiency in the wind turbine in the wind farming, we have to analyze wind conditions and geographic characteristics conditions.
Also wind speeds increases in summer month. After these records, daily and monthly wind speed averages are calculated. Hourly wind speed values are compiled from the and records obtained from the Izmit Meteorology Directorate, and the information about the monthly average wind speeds are given in Table1. Approximately cut-in wind speed is 3. And we are using these parameters in our wind turbine project.
Choosing of wind speed and wind power will explain in next section. Choosing of Airfoil About airfoil selection was mentioned in the literature section. It depends on aerodynamic force and these forces can fly planes and turns blades of turbines. These profiles were calculated from another scientist and engineers. There are many profiles calculated in the literature. In this study, it was decided to use NACA airfoil because its efficiency is better in the wind turbines.
Usually this airfoil uses in wind turbine. The wing is generally divided into three sections and the midpoints of these sections were used. Following this, calculations of the sections were made. Here is the simplified condition model; Figure 2. The aim was to find rotational speed using this angle. It is also to find the angle of the other sections of the wing. Airfoil type was taken NACA in calculation part. First step of design, complete calculation.
Because every part must be controlled from engineering laws and formula. If every value is realistic and safety, design can start. Next step of design is importing of airfoil to SolidWorks.
In the website, airfoils can easily have seen. After that, true airfoil must be taken as in calculation part as. As you can see in Figure. We can see in Figure. These points cannot import directly to SolidWorks. These must be pasted to excel and determined for SolidWorks format. In Figure. Now airfoil can easily have drawn in SolidWorks. Because airfoil design standards can easily change when airfoil dimensioned by designer.
First, relation between coordinate system with airfoil must be decided. This relation must be given too.
Dimensions must be as shown as in Figure 3. This part was decided in calculation part. And its shape is circle. Other three airfoil dimension was drawn with as like 3 m airfoils as. But difference is first airfoil is in front plane. Other airfoils planes given reference from front plane and drawn in own planes.
Planes dimensions are respect to calculation part dimension. In this study, blade calculated section to section. Diagram showing wind turbines generating electricity for household.
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